Cells Review Page
Looking Inside Cells
Plant Cell vs. Animal Cell--their three major differences
1.) Plant cells have cell walls; animal cells don't--that's why the shape of plant cells is usually rectangular while animal cells can have many different, irregular shapes depending on their functions
cell wall.jpg
cell wall.jpg

2.) Plant cells have chloroplasts to turn sunlight into food; animal cells don't and therefore can't make their own food within the cells
chloroplasts.jpg
chloroplasts.jpg

3.) Plant cells usually have one large vacuole while animal cells have many small ones or none at all

vacuole--plant0.jpg
vacuole--plant0.jpg
contractile_vacuole.gif
contractile_vacuole.gif

Cell wall ~In plant cells only; provides shape, support, protection to cell ~Is non-living~School analogy: brick walls of school protect, support and give shape to school~Your analogy:

Cell membrane ~Surrounds cell, controls what goes in and out.~School analogy: windows/doors of school allow people to go in and out~Your analogy:
Cytoplasm~Gel-like substance that fills cell; where organelles are found.~School analogy: Air fills school like cytoplasm fills cell~Your analogy:

Organelles ~Structures in cell that have special jobs

Mitochondrion (singular) Mitochondria (plural) ~Convert food to energy; “powerhouse” of cell~School analogy: Generator creates electricity/energy for school~Your analogy:

Ribosome~Make proteins for cell; a “factory” ~School analogy: Cafeteria provides proteins (food) for students~Your analogy:

Vacuole ~Storage space for cell—holds waste, water, food. ~Plant cells--one large vacuole; animal cells--many small vacuoles or none at all~School analogy: Bathrooms hold wastes; closets store paper, books~Your analogy:

Golgi body~Receives products from endoplasmic reticulum, repackages and sends them to other parts of cell or outside of cell~School analogy: Main office is where items are dropped off and delivered to other parts of the school (ex. students' lunches)~Your analogy:

Endoplasmic reticulum ~Maze of passageways where proteins, other materials travel~Rough ER—have ribosomes attached to walls of ER~Smooth ER—no ribosomes attached~School analogy: Hallways where people travel; halls with lockers like rough ER~Your analogy:
Lysosome ~Breaks down large food particles; “clean-up crew” of cell gets rid of waste~School analogy: Custodians clean up after us~Your analogy:
Nucleus ~Controls everything that happens in cell; “brain” of cell~School analogy: Principal controls what goes on in school~Your analogy:
Chromatin~Found in nucleus; contains DNA—instructions for what organism does~School analogy: Clocks tell us what time to leave a class to go to another~Your analogy:

Nuclear envelope~Membrane surrounding/protecting nucleus; controls what goes into and out of nucleus~School analogy: Principal’s office surrounds her, secretary controls visitors~Your analogy:

Nucleolus~Found in nucleus; makes ribosomes that are important to cells~School analogy: Teachers make lessons--important to growth of knowledge~Your analogy:
Chloroplast~Converts sunlight into energy or food for cell—process called photosynthesis~School analogy: Lunch ladies make us lunch~Your analogy:


plant cell unlabeled.jpg
plant cell unlabeled.jpg
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392007_30319_1.png





Discovering Cells Cell—Basic unit of (structure and function in) all living things
Microscope—instrument that makes small objects look larger
Cell Theory· All living things are made of cells· Cells are the basic unit of (structure and function in) all living things· All cells are produced from other cells
Robert Hooke
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hooke.gif
—saw cells in cork
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with his compound microscope
hooke's microscope.jpg
hooke's microscope.jpg

Antony van Leeuwenhoek
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leeuwenhoek.jpg
—saw living organisms
leeuwenhoek Rotifervulgaris.jpg
leeuwenhoek Rotifervulgaris.jpg
with his single lens microscope
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leeuwenhoek's microscope.jpg
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leeuwenhoek's microscope.gif

Schleiden
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schleiden.jpg
, Schwann
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Schwann.gif
, and Virchow
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Virchow.gif
—Developed the cell theory



Parts of the microscopeClick here to review the parts of the microscope
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microscope.gif